Language.

Spoken living languages

AARI

[AIZ] 158,857mother tongue speakers, 13,319 second language users, 155,002 in the ethnic group, 129,350 monolinguals (1998 census).  North central Omo region, southern tip of Ethiopian plateau, near the Hamer-Banna. Alternate names: ARI, ARA, ARO, AARAI, 'SHANKILLA', 'SHANKILLINYA', 'SHANKILLIGNA'.  Dialects: GOZZA, BAKO (BACO), BIYO (BIO), GALILA, LAYDO, SEYKI, SHANGAMA, SIDO, WUBAHAMER (UBAMER), ZEDDO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. 
More information.

AFAR

[AFR] 979,367 mother tongue speakers, 22,848 second language users, 979,367 in the ethnic group, 905,872 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total all countries 1,579,000.  Alternate names: AFARAF, 'DANAKIL', 'DENKEL', <AFAR AF, ADAL.  Dialects: NORTHERN AFAR, CENTRAL AFAR, AUSSA, BAADU (BA<ADU).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar. 
More information.

AGAW, WESTERN

[QIM] 1,650 mother tongue speakers, 3,181 second language users, out of 172,327 in the ethnic group, 170,747 ethnic Western Agaw are monolingual in Amharic in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both countries 1,650 or more.  Dialects: QIMANT (KEMANT, KIMANT, KEMANAT, KAMANT, CHEMANT, QEMANT), DEMBIYA (DEMBYA, DAMBYA), HWARASA (QWARA, QWARINA, 'KARA'), KAYLA, SEMYEN, ACHPAR, KWOLASA (KWOLACHA).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Western. 
More information.

ALABA

[ALB] 126,257 mother tongue speakers, 25,271 second language users, 125,900 in the ethnic group, 95,388 monolinguals (1998 census).  Rift Valley southwest of Lake Shala. Separated by a river from the Kambatta. Alternate names: ALLAABA, HALABA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 
More information.

AMHARIC

[AMH] 17,372,913 mother tongue speakers, 5,104,150 second language users, 16,007,933 in the ethnic group, 14,743,556 monolinguals in Ethiopia, (1998 census). Population total all countries 17,413,000 or more. 21,000,000 including second language users (1999 WA).  Alternate names: ABYSSINIAN, ETHIOPIAN, AMARINYA, AMARIGNA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba. 
More information.

ANFILLO

[MYO] 500 speakers out of an ethnic group of 1,000 (1990 SIL).  Anfillo Forest, west of Dembi Dolo. Alternate names: SOUTHERN MAO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, Central. 
More information.

ANUAK

[ANU] 45,646 mother tongue speakers, 2,114 second language users, 45,665 in the ethnic group, 34,311 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census).  Gambela Region in the southwest. Along the Baro, Alworo, and Gilo rivers and on the right bank of the Akobo River. Gambela town is the main center. Alternate names: ANYWAK, ANYUAK, ANYWA, YAMBO, JAMBO, YEMBO, BAR, BURJIN, MIROY, MOOJANGA, NURO.  Dialects: ADOYO, CORO, LUL, OPËNO.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak. 
More information.

ARBORE

[ARV] 4,441 mother tongue speakers, 3,108 second language users, 6,559 in the ethnic group, 3,907 monolinguals (1998 census).  Extreme southwest, Omo Region, near Lake Stefanie. Alternate names: ARBORA, ERBORE, IRBORE.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. 
More information.

ARGOBBA

[AGJ] 10,860 mother tongue speakers, 3,236 second language speakers, 62,831 in the ethnic group. 44,737 monolinguals, including 47,285 in Amharic, 3,771 in Oromo, 541 in Tigrigna (1999 census).  Fragmented areas along the Rift Valley in settlements like Yimlawo, Gusa, Shonke, Berket, Keramba, Mellajillo, Metehara, Shewa Robit and surrounding rural villages. Dialects: ANKOBER, SHONKE.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba. 
More information.

AWNGI

[AWN] 356,980 mother tongue speakers, 64,425 second language speakers, 397,491 in the ethnic group, 279,326 monolinguals (1998 census).  Amhara Region. Widely scattered parts of Agew Midir and Metekel, southwest of Lake Tana. Alternate names: AWIYA, AWI, AGAW, AGAU, AGEW, AGOW, AWAWAR, DAMOT, KWOLLANYOCH.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern. 
More information.

BAISO

[BSW] 1,010 (1995 SIL) out of a larger ethnic group.  Alge village near Merab Abaya, half way between Soddo and Arba Minch (390); Gidicho Island, Baiso and Shigima villages (200); and Welege (420) Island on Lake Abaya, and the western shore of the lake. Alternate names: BAYSO, ALKALI.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. 
More information.

BAMBASSI

[MYF] 5,000 (1982 SIL).  Beni Shangul Region, in and around Bambesi. Alternate names: BAMBESHI, SIGGOYO, AMAM, FADIRO, NORTHERN MAO, DIDESSA.  Dialects: KERE, BAMBASSI.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, East. 
More information.

BASKETTO

[BST] 57,805 mother tongue speakers, 8,961 second language speakers, 51,097 in the ethnic group, 42,726 monolinguals (1998 census).  North Omo Region, on a plateau west of Bulki. Alternate names: BASKETO, BASKATTA, MESKETO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, West. 
More information.

BENCH

[BCQ] 173,586 mother tongue speakers, 22,640 second language speakers, 173,123 in the ethnic group, 149,293 monolinguals including 10,002 She, 1,070 Mer (1998 census).  Kafa Region, in and around Mizan Teferi and Shewa Bench towns. Alternate names: GIMIRA, GHIMARRA, GIMARRA, DIZU.  Dialects: BENCH (BENCHO, BENESHO), MER (MIERU), SHE (SCE, KABA).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Gimira. 
More information.

BERTA

[WTI] 124,799 mother tongue speakers including 8,715 Fadashi; 16,533 second language speakers including 795 of Fadashi; 125,853 in the ethnic group including 7,323 Fadashi in Ethiopia; 99,689 monolinguals including 4,146 Fadashi (1998 census). Population total both countries 147,000.  Alternate names: BENI SHANGUL, BERTHA, BARTA, BURTA, WETAWIT, JEBELAWI.  Dialects: SHURU, BAKE, UNDU, MAYU, FADASHI, DABUSO, GOBATO.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Berta. 
More information.

BIRALE

[BXE] 20 speakers out of an ethnic group of 70 (1990 SIL).  One village on the west bank of the Weyt'o River, southeast Omo Region. Alternate names: 'ONGOTA, BIRELLE, IFA'ONGOTA, 'SHANQILLA'.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Unclassified.  Nearly extinct.
More information.

BORO

[BWO] 19,878 mother tongue speakers including 144 Gamila; 2,276 second language speakers including 45 Gamila; 32,894 in the ethnic group including 186 Gamila; 18,567 monolinguals including 77 Gamila (1998 census).  Southwest Amhara Region, near the Blue Nile River. Alternate names: BWORO, SHINASHA, SCINACIA.  Dialects: AMURU, WAMBERA, GAMILA, GUBA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, North. 
More information.

BURJI

[BJI] 35,731 mother tongue speakers, 3,045 second language speakers, 46,565 in the ethnic group, 29,259 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both countries 42,730.  Alternate names: BAMBALA, BEMBALA, DAASHI.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 
More information.

BUSSA

[DOX] 6,624 mother tongue speakers, 920 second language speakers, 9,207 in the ethnic group, 4,955 monolinguals (1998 census).  Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Alternate names: DOBASE, D'OOPACE, D'OPAASUNTE, LOHU, MASHILE, MASHELLE, MASHOLLE, MOSIYE, MUSIYE, GOBEZE, GOWASE, GORAZE, ORASE.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay. 
More information.

CHARA

[CRA] 6,932 mother tongue speakers, 668 second language speakers, 6,984 in the ethnic group, 5,556 monolinguals (1998 census).  Central Kafa Region, just north of the Omo River. Alternate names: CIARA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Chara. 
More information.

DAASANACH

[DSH] 32,064 mother tongue speakers, 231 second language speakers, 32,099 in the ethnic group, 31,368 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both countries 34,560.  Alternate names: DASENECH, DAASANECH, DATHANAIK, DATHANAIC, DATHANIK, GHELEBA, GELEBA, GELEB, GELEBINYA, GALLAB, GALUBA, GELAB, GELUBBA, DAMA, MARILLE, MERILE, MERILLE, MORILLE, RESHIAT, RUSSIA, 'SHANGILLA'.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. 
More information.

DIME

[DIM] 6,501 mother tongue speakers, 529 second language speakers, 6,197 in the ethnic group, 4,785 monolinguals (1998 census).  Kafa Region, north of the Omo River, just before it turns south. Alternate names: DIMA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. 
More information.

DIRASHA

[GDL] 50,328 mother tongue speakers, 1,974 second language speakers, 54,354 in the ethnic group, 41,685 monolinguals (1998 census).  Omo Region, in the hills west of Lake Chamo, around Gidole town. Alternate names: DHIRASHA, DIRAASHA, DIRAYTA, GARDULLA, GHIDOLE, GIDOLE.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole. 
More information.

DIZI

[MDX] 21,075 mother tongue speakers, 2,054 second language speakers, 21,894 in the ethnic group, 17,583 monolinguals (1998 census).  Kafa Region, near Maji town. Alternate names: MAJI, DIZI-MAJI, SIZI, TWOYU.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid. 
More information.

DORZE

[DOZ] 20,782 mother tongue speakers, 3,597 second language speakers, 28,990 in the ethnic group, 9,905 monolinguals (1998 census).  Mostly in North Omo Region in and around Chencha, but a significant community is in Addis Ababa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. 
More information.

ENGLISH

[ENG] 1,986 mother tongue speakers, 169,726 second language users (1998 census).   Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. 
More information.

GAMO-GOFA-DAWRO

[GMO] 1,236,637 mother tongue speakers including 690,069 Gamo, 313,228 Dawro, 233,340 Gofa; 77,883 second language users including 24,438 Gamo, 19,996 Dawro, 33,449 Gofa; 1,292,860 in the ethnic group including 719,847 Gamo, 331,483 Dawro, 241,530 Gofa; 1,046,084 monolinguals including 597,130 Gamo, 259,633 Dawro, 189,321 Gofa (1998 census).  Omo Region, in and around Arba Minch, and in the mountains west to Lake Abaya. Dache is a place name, not a language. Dialects: GAMO (GEMU), GOFA (GOFFA), DAWRO (DAURO, KULLO, CULLO, OMETAY).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. 
More information.

GANZA

[GZA]   Western Oromo, near the Blue Nile. Alternate names: GANZO, KOMA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West.  Nearly extinct.
More information.

GAWWADA

[GWD] 32,698 mother tongue speakers, 1,367 second language speakers, 33,971 in the ethnic group, 27,477 monolinguals (1998 census).  Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Alternate names: GAUWADA, GAWATA, KAWWAD'A, KAWWADA.  Dialects: DIHINA (TIHINA, TIHINTE), GERGERE (K'ARK'ARTE), GOBEZE, GOLLANGO (KOLLANKO), GOROSE (GORROSE, KORROSE), HARSO (WORASE).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay. 
More information.

GEDEO

[DRS] 637,082 mother tongue speakers, 47,950 second language speakers, 639,905 in the ethnic group, 438,958 monolinguals (1998 census).  Central highland area, southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya. Alternate names: GEDDEO, DERESA, DERASA, DARASA, DERASANYA, DARASSA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 
More information.

GUMUZ

[GUK] 120,424 mother tongue speakers, 4,379 second language speakers, 121,487 in the ethnic group, 88,192 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both countries 160,400.  Alternate names: GUMIS, GOMBO, 'SHANKILLINYA', 'SHANQILLA', MENDEYA, DEBATSA, DEBUGA, DEHENDA, BEGA, 'SHANKILLIGNA'.  Dialects: DAKUNZA (DUKUNA, DUGUNZA, DUKUNZA, DUGUNZ, GUNZA, GANZA, DEGOJA), SAI, SESE (SAYSAY), DISOHA (DESUA).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Gumuz. 
More information.

GURAGE, EAST

[GRE] 827,764 mother tongue speakers, 89,042 second language speakers, 900,348 in the ethnic group (1998 census).  About 150 kms. south of Addis Ababa. Dialects: ENNEQOR (INNEQOR), SILTI (SELTI), ULBARAG (URBAREG), WOLANE (WALANE).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage. 
More information.

GURAGE, SODDO

[GRU] 254,682 mother tongue speakers, 60,538 second language speakers, 363,867 in the ethnic group (1998 census). 4,000 Gogot.  Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region, just southwest of Addis Ababa. Alternate names: KISTANE, SODDO, NORTH GURAGE.  Dialects: SODDO (AYMALLAL, AYMELLEL, KESTANE, KISTANE), GOGOT (GOGGOT, DOBI, DOBBI).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group. 
More information.

GURAGE, WEST

[GUY] 798,202 mother tongue speakers, 58,694 second language speakers, 1,022,089 in the ethnic group (1998 census). All Gurage languages including Soddo: 1,881,574 mother tongue speakers, 208,358 second language speakers, 2,290,274 in the ethnic group, 1,248,415 monolinguals (1998 census).  West Gurage Region. Alternate names: CENTRAL WEST GURAGE, GURAGIE, GOURAGHIE, GURAGUE.  Dialects: CHAHA (CHEHA), INOR (ENNEMOR), EZHA (EZA, IZHA), GUMER (GWEMARRA), GURA, ENEGEGNY, MASQAN (MESQAN, MESKAN), MUHER.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group. 
More information.

HADIYYA

[HDY] 923,958 mother tongue speakers, 150,889 second language speakers, 927,933 in the ethnic group, 595,107 monolinguals (1998 census).  Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region, between the Omo and Billate rivers, in and around Hosaina town. Alternate names: ADIYA, ADIYE, HADIYA, HADYA, ADEA, HADIA.  Dialects: LEEMO, SORO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 
More information.

HAMER-BANNA

[AMF] 42,838 mother tongue speakers, 7,120 second language speakers, 42,466 in the ethnic group, 38,354 monolinguals (1998 census).  South Omo Region, near the Omo River, and north of Lake Turkana, in the southwest corner, near the Kenya, Uganda, Sudan borders. Alternate names: HAMAR-KOKE, HAMMERCOCHE, AMARCOCCHE, COCCHE, BESHADA, HAMER, HAMMER, HAMAR, AMER, AMAR, AMMAR, BANNA, BANA, KARA KERRE.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. 
More information.

HARARI

[HAR] 21,283 mother tongue speakers, 7,766 second language speakers, 21,757 in the ethnic group, 2,351 monolinguals (1998 census). Today 20,000 in Addis Ababa, outside Harar city (Hetzron 1997:486).  Homeland Eastern, traditionally within the walled city of Harar. Large communities in Addis Ababa, Nazareth and Dire Dawa. Alternate names: HARARRI, ADARE, ADERE, ADERINYA, ADARINNYA, GEY SINAN.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage. 
More information.

HOZO

[HOZ] 3,000 (1995 SIL).  Western Oromo Region, Begi area, 50 or more villages. Alternate names: BEGI-MAO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West. 
More information.

KACHAMA-GANJULE

[KCX] 4,072 mother tongue speakers including 2,682 Kachama,1,390 Ganjule; 419 second language speakers including 223 Kachama, 196 Ganjule; 3,886 in the ethnic group including 2,740 Kachama, 1,146 Ganjule; 1,002 monolinguals including 816 Kachama, 186 Ganjule (1998 census).  Kachama is on Gidicho Island in Lake Abaya. Ganjule originally on a small island in Lake Chamo. Ganjule have recently relocated to Shela-Mela on the west shore of Lake Chamo. Alternate names: GATS'AME, GET'EME.  Dialects: GANJULE (GANJAWLE), GANTA, KACHAMA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East. 
More information.

KACIPO-BALESI

[KOE] 2,000 to 3,000 in Ethiopia (1982 SIL).  Southern Ethiopia-Sudan border, Boma Plateau in Sudan (Kacipo). Dialects: BALESI (BAALE, BALE), ZILMAMU (SILMAMO, ZELMAMU, ZULMAMU, TSILMANO), KACIPO (KACHEPO, SURI, WESTERN SURI).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi. 
More information.

KAFICHO

[KBR] 569,626 mother tongue speakers, 46,720 second language speakers, 599,188 in the ethnic group, 445,018 monolinguals (1998 census).  Kafa Region, in and around the town of Bonga. There may be some in Sudan. Alternate names: KAFA, KEFA, KEFFA, KAFFA, CAFFINO, MANJO.  Dialects: KAFA, BOSHA (GARO).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South. 
More information.

KAMBAATA

[KTB] 606,241 mother tongue speakers including 487,655 Kambaata, 82,803 Timbaro, 35,783 Qebena; 83,750 second language speakers including 68,607 Kambaata, 10,715 Timbaro. 4,428 Qebena; 621,407 in the ethnic group including 499,825 Kambaata, 86,510 Timbaro, 35,072 Qebena; 345,797 monolinguals including 278,567 Kambaata, 51,541 Timbaro, 15,689 Qebena (1998 census).  Southwest Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region. Durame is the main town. Alternate names: KAMBATTA, KAMBATA, KEMBATA, KEMATA, KAMBARA, DONGA.  Dialects: TAMBARO, TIMBARO (TIMBARA, TIMBAARO), QEBENA (QABENA, KEBENA, K'ABENA).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 
More information.

KARO

[KXH] 200 (1998 M. Yigezu).  South Omo Region, upstream from the Daasanech, riverside settlements near the Hamer-Banna. Alternate names: KERRE, CHERRE, KERE.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. 
More information.

KOMO

[KOM] 1,500 in Ethiopia (1975 Bender).  South and west of Kwama. Alternate names: MADIIN, KOMA, SOUTH KOMA, CENTRAL KOMA.  Dialects: KOMA OF BEGI, KOMA OF DAGA.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. 
More information.

KOMSO

[KXC] 149,508 mother tongue speakers, 5,658 second language speakers, 153,419 in the ethnic group, 138,696 monolinguals (1998 census).  South of Lake Ciamo in the bend of the Sagan River. A few migrants in Kenya. Alternate names: KONSO, CONSO, GATO, AF-KARETI, KARATE, KARETI.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole. 
More information.

KOORETE

[KQY] 103,879 mother tongue speakers, 2,371 second language speakers, 107,595 in the ethnic group, 84,388 monolinguals (1998 census). About 60 Harro families in Harro village on Gidicho (Gidicció) Island.  In the Amaro mountains east of Lake Abaya, Sidama Region. Alternate names: AMARRO, AMAARRO, BADITTU, NUNA, KOYRA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East. 
More information.

KUNFAL

[XUF]   East of Lake Tana. Alternate names: KUNFEL, KUMFEL.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern. 
More information.

KWAMA

[KMQ] 15,000 (1982 SIL).  Along Sudan border in southern Beni Shangul Region, from south of Asosa to Gidami, and in Gambela and Bonga. 19 villages, including one (Yabus) in Sudan. Alternate names: TAKWAMA, GWAMA, GOMA, GOGWAMA, KOMA OF ASOSA, NORTH KOMA, NOKANOKA, AFAN MAO, AMAM, T'WA KWAMA.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. 
More information.

KWEGU

[YID] 103 mother tongue speakers, 51 second language speakers, 173 in the ethnic group, 73 monolinguals (1998 census).  Kuchur village on the western bank of the Omo River in southwestern Ethiopia. Alternate names: KOEGU, KWEGI, BACHA, MENJA.  Dialects: YIDINICH (YIDINIT, YIDI), MUGUJI.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Kwegu. 
More information.

LIBIDO

[LIQ] 36,612 mother tongue speakers, 9,208 second language speakers, 38,096 in the ethnic group, 14,623 monolinguals (1998 census).  Hadiyya, Kambaata, Gurage Region, northeast of Hosaina. Alternate names: MARAQO, MARAKO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 
More information.

MAJANG

[MPE] 15,341 mother tongue speakers, 438 second language speakers, 15,341 in the ethnic group, 10,752 monolinguals (1998 census).  Southwest. Mainly within a long, narrow belt between Bure (east of Gambela) and Guraferda to the south. Covers part of Gambela, Oromo, and Kafa administrative regions. They have been scattered, but are now settling in villages. Alternate names: MESENGO, MASONGO, MASANGO, MAJANJIRO, TAMA, OJANJUR, AJO, ATO MAJANG, ATO MAJANGER-ONK.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, North, Majang. 
More information.

MALE

[MDY] 53,779 mother tongue speakers, 6,730 second language speakers, 46,458 in the ethnic group, 40,660 monolinguals (1998 census).  Omo Region, southeast of Jinka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo. 
More information.

ME'EN

[MYM] 56,585 mother tongue speakers including 4,570 Bodi; 6,300 second language speakers including 342 Bodi; 57,501 in the ethnic group including 4,686 Bodi; 51,446 monolinguals including 4,553 Bodi (1998 census).  Central Kafa region, the Tishena in and around Bachuma, the Bodi in lowlands to the south, near the Omo River. Not in Sudan. Alternate names: MEKAN, MIE'EN, MIEKEN, MEQAN, MEN.  Dialects: BODI (PODI), TISHENA (TESHINA, TESHENNA).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Me'en. 
More information.

MELO

[MFX] 20,151 mother tongue speakers, 4,657 second language users, 20,189 in the ethnic group, 13,264 monolinguals (1998 census).  North Omo Region, in and around Malo-Koza, northeast of the Basketo. Alternate names: MALO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. 
More information.

MESMES

[MYS]   Gurage, Hadiyya, Kambatta Region. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group. 
More information.

MURLE

[MUR] 200 in Ethiopia (1975 Tournay).  South of the Akobo River. Olam is in southwest Ethiopia and on the Sudan border. It is between Murle and Majang culturally and linguistically (Bender 1983). Alternate names: MURELE, MERULE, MOURLE, MURULE, BEIR, AJIBBA.  Dialects: OLAM (NGALAM, BANGALAM).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle. 
More information.

MURSI

[MUZ] 3,278 mother tongue speakers, 34 second language users, 3,258 in the ethnic group, 3,155 monolinguals (1998 census).  Central Omo Region, lowlands southwest of Jinka. Alternate names: MURZI, MURZU, MERDU, MERITU, DAMA.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri. 
More information.

NAYI

[NOZ] 3,656 mother tongue speakers, 1,876 second language users, 4,005 in the ethnic group, 1,137 monolinguals (1998 census).  Decha Awraja, Kafa Region, and scattered in other parts of Kafa. The nearest town is Bonga. A few in Dulkuma village of the Shoa Bench Wereda, and Aybera, Kosa, and Jomdos villages of Sheko Wereda. Alternate names: NA'O, NAO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid. 
More information.

NUER

[NUS] 64,907 mother tongue speakers, 1,122 second language speakers, 64,534 in the ethnic group, 61,640 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census).  Along the Baro River, in Gambela Region. Alternate names: NAATH.  Dialects: EASTERN NUER (JI, KANY, JIKANY, DOOR, ABIGAR).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer. 
More information.

NYANGATOM

[NNJ] 14,177 mother tongue speakers, 123 second language speakers, 14,201 in the ethnic group, 13,797 monolinguals (1998 census).  Extreme southwest corner of Ethiopia, Omo Region. Two settlement centers: Omo River and Kibish River. Transhumance into the region of Moru Angipi in Sudan. Alternate names: INYANGATOM, DONYIRO, DONGIRO, IDONGIRO.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana. 
More information.

OPUUO

[LGN] 301 mother tongue speakers, 72 second language speakers, 307 in the ethnic group, 235 monolinguals (1998 census). Population total both countries 301 or more.  Alternate names: OPO-SHITA, OPO, OPUO, CITA, CIITA, SHITA, SHIITA, ANSITA, KINA, KWINA, 'LANGA'.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. 
More information.

OROMO, BORANA-ARSI-GUJI

[GAX] 3,634,000 mother tongue speakers in Ethiopia. Population total all countries 3,786,000.  Alternate names: AFAN OROMO, SOUTHERN OROMO, 'GALLA', 'GALLINYA', 'GALLIGNA'.  Dialects: BORANA (BORAN, BORENA), ARSI (ARUSSI, ARUSI), GUJI (GUJJI, JEMJEM), KEREYU, SALALE (SELALE), GABRA (GABBRA, GEBRA).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. 
More information.

OROMO, EASTERN

[HAE] 4,526,000 (1998 census).  Eastern and western Hararghe zone in northern Bale zone. Alternate names: 'QOTU' OROMO, HARAR, HARER, 'QOTTU', 'QUOTTU', 'QWOTTU', 'KWOTTU', ITTU.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. 
More information.

OROMO, WEST-CENTRAL

[GAZ] 8,920,000 (1998 census). Population total both countries 8,920,000.  Alternate names: GALLA, OROMOO.  Dialects: WESTERN OROMO, CENTRAL OROMO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. 
More information.

OYDA

[OYD] 16,597 mother tongue speakers, 4,040 second language speakers, 14,075 in the ethnic group, 6,244 monolinguals (1998 census).  Northwest Omo Region, southwest of Sawla. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. 
More information.

RER BARE

[RER]   Wabi Shebelle River around Gode, eastern Ogaden, near Somali border, and along the Ganale and Dawa rivers. Alternate names: REREBERE, ADONA.  Classification: Unclassified. 
More information.

SAHO

[SSY] 22,759 first language speakers in Ethiopia, 3,378 second language speakers (1998 census).  Tigray. Alternate names: SAO, SHAHO, SHOHO, SHIHO.  Dialects: IROB.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar. 
More information.

SEZE

[SZE] 3,000 (1995 SIL).  Western Oromo Region, near Begi, north of the Hozo. Alternate names: SEZO.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West. 
More information.

SHABO

[SBF] 400 to 1,000 (1986) out of a larger ethnic population.  Kafa Region, between Godere and Mashi, among the Majang and Shakacho. Alternate names: SHAKO, 'MEKEYER', 'MIKEYIR', 'MIKAIR'.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Unclassified. 
More information.

SHAKACHO

[MOY] 54,894 mother tongue speakers, 3,476 second language speakers, 53,897 in the ethnic group, 36,449 monolinguals (1998 census).  North Kafa Region, in and around Maasha. Alternate names: MOC'HA, MOCHA, SHEKKA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South. 
More information.

SHEKO

[SHE] 23,785 mother tongue speakers, 4,920 second language speakers, 23,785 in the ethnic group, 13,611 monolinguals (1998 census).  Kafa Region, Shako District. Gaizek'a is a monolingual community. Bajek'a, Selale, and Shimi are multilingual. Alternate names: SHEKKO, SHEKKA, TSCHAKO, SHAKO, SHAK.  Dialects: DORSHA, BULLA (DAAN, DAN, DAANYIR).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid. 
More information.

SIDAMO

[SID] 1,876,329 mother tongue speakers, 101,340 second language speakers, 1,842,314 in the ethnic group, 1,632,902 monolinguals (1998 census).  South central Ethiopia, northeast of Lake Abaya and southeast of Lake Awasa (Sidamo Awraja). Awasa is the capital of the Sidama Region. Alternate names: SIDÁMO 'AFÓ, SIDAMINYA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 
More information.

SOMALI

[SOM] 3,187,053 mother tongue speakers, 95,572 second language speakers, 3,160,540 in the ethnic group, 2,878,371 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census).  Southeast Ethiopia, Somali Region. Alternate names: STANDARD SOMALI, COMMON SOMALI.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. 
More information.

SURI

[SUQ] 19,622 mother tongue speakers, 212 second language speakers, 19,632 in the ethnic group, 19,269 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total both countries 20,600.  Alternate names: SURMA, SHURI, CHURI, DHURI, SHURO, EASTERN SURI.  Dialects: TIRMA (TIRIMA, TEREMA, TERNA, DIRMA, CIRMA, TIRMAGA, TIRMAGI, TID), CHAI (CAI, CACI).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri. 
More information.

TIGRIGNA

[TGN] 3,224,875 mother tongue speakers, 146,933 second language speakers, 3,284,568 in the ethnic group, 2,819,755 monolinguals in Ethiopia (1998 census). Population total all countries 5,135,000.  Alternate names: TIGRINYA, TIGRAY.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. 
More information.

TSAMAI

[TSB] 8,621 mother tongue speakers, 1,200 second language speakers, 9,702 in the ethnic group, 5.298 monolinguals (1998 census).  Omo Region, lowlands west of Lake Chamo. Alternate names: TS'AMAY, S'AMAI, TAMAHA, TSAMAKO, TSAMAKKO, BAGO S'AAMAKK-ULO, KUILE, KULE, CULE.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay. 
More information.

UDUK

[UDU]  Population total both countries 20,000 (1995 W. James).  Alternate names: TWAMPA, KWANIM PA, BURUN, KEBEIRKA, OTHAN, KORARA, KUMUS.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman. 
More information.

WOLAYTTA

[WBC] 1,231,673 mother tongue speakers, 89,801 second language speakers, 1,269,216 in the ethnic group, 999,694 monolinguals (1998 census).  Wolaytta Region, Lake Abaya area. Alternate names: WELLAMO, WELAMO, WOLLAMO, WALLAMO, WALAMO, UALAMO, UOLLAMO, WOLAITTA, WOLAITA, WOLAYTA, WOLATAITA, BORODDA, UBA, OMETO.  Dialects: ZALA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. 
More information.

XAMTANGA

[XAN] 143,369 mother tongue speakers, 11,026 second language speakers, 158,231 in the ethnic group, 93,889 monolinguals (1998 census).  North Amhara Region, Avergele District and Lasta and Waag zones, 100 kms. north of Weldiya. Alternate names: KHAMTANGA, SIMT'ANGA, AGAWINYA, XAMTA, XAMIR.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Eastern. 
More information.

YEMSA

[JNJ] 81,613 mother tongue speakers, 4,356 second language speakers, 165,184 in the ethnic group, 114,701 monolinguals (1998 census).  Oromo Region, recognized as separate district, northeast of Jimma, southwestern Ethiopia, Fofa, and mixed with the Oromo in their villages; Sokoru, Saja, Deedoo, Sak'a, Jimma. Alternate names: YEM, YEMMA, 'JANJERO', 'JANJERINYA', 'JANJOR', 'YANGARO', 'ZINJERO'.  Dialects: FUGA OF JIMMA, TOBA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Janjero. 
More information.

ZAY

[ZWA] 4,880 (1994 SIL).  Shores of Lake Zway and eastern islands in Lake Zway. Alternate names: ZWAY, LAK'I, LAQI, GELILLA.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage. 
More information.

ZAYSE-ZERGULLA

[ZAY] 17,797 mother tongue speakers including 10,172 Zayse, 7,625 Zergulla; 2,815 second language speakers including 1,017 Zayse, 1,798 Zergulla; 11,232 in the ethnic group including 10,842 Zayse, 390 Zergulla; 7,530 monolinguals including 7,371 Zayse, 159 Zergulla (1998 census).  Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Alternate names: ZAYSSE.  Dialects: ZERGULLA (ZERGULLINYA), ZAYSE.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East. 
More information.

Extinct languages

GAFAT

[GFT]   South Blue Nile area. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group. 
More information.

GEEZ

[GEE]   Also spoken in Eritrea. Alternate names: ANCIENT ETHIOPIC, ETHIOPIC, GE'EZ, GIIZ.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. 
More information.

WEYTO

[WOY] Ethnic population: 1,631: 1,519 (93%) speak Amharic as mother tongue, others speak other mother tongues. 1,532 speak no other language.  Lake Tana region. Alternate names: WAYTO, WEYT'O.  Classification: Unclassified. 
More information.

Deaf sign languages

ETHIOPIAN SIGN LANGUAGE

[ETH]    Classification: Deaf sign language. 
More information.